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Bitcoin: Ein Peer-to-Peer Electronic Cash System Besuchen Sie das Bitcoin-Whitepaper Repository auf GitHub für eine Einführung und öffnen Sie ein "Issue",. Bitcoin: Ein elektronisches Peer-to-Peer- Cash-System. Satoshi Nakamoto [email protected] strategistmagazine.co Translated in German from. Satoshi hat in einer Mail in der Cryptographie Mailing List am 1. November ein Whitepaper mit dem schlichten Titel "Bitcoin: A Peer-to-Peer Electronic Cash. Das Bitcoin White Paper wurde im Jahr von Satoshi Nakamoto in einer Mailing-Liste veröffentlicht. Es enthält die Grundidee und den technologischen. Heute, am Oktober, sind es elf Jahre seit das Bitcoin-Whitepaper durch die immer noch geheimnisvolle Person oder Gruppe unter dem.
Das Bitcoin White Paper wurde im Jahr von Satoshi Nakamoto in einer Mailing-Liste veröffentlicht. Es enthält die Grundidee und den technologischen. In diesem Kapitel Verstehen, woher die Bitcoin-Blockchain stammt Einige Mythen über (Das Bitcoin-Whitepaper finden Sie unter strategistmagazine.co). In dem Whitepaper stellt Nakamoto erstmals Bitcoin offiziell der Öffentlichkeit vor und beschreibt, was Bitcoin ist, wie die digitale Währung funktioniert und.
Businesses that receive frequent payments will probably still want to run their own nodes for more independent security and quicker verification.
Combining and Splitting Value Although it would be possible to handle coins individually, it would be unwieldy to make a separate transaction for every cent in a transfer.
To allow value to be split and combined, transactions contain multiple inputs and outputs. Normally there will be either a single input from a larger previous transaction or multiple inputs combining smaller amounts, and at most two outputs: one for the payment, and one returning the change, if any, back to the sender.
Transaction In Out In It should be noted that fan-out, where a transaction depends on several transactions, and those transactions depend on many more, is not a problem here.
There is never the need to extract a complete standalone copy of a transaction's history. Privacy The traditional banking model achieves a level of privacy by limiting access to information to the parties involved and the trusted third party.
The necessity to announce all transactions publicly precludes this method, but privacy can still be maintained by breaking the flow of information in another place: by keeping public keys anonymous.
The public can see that someone is sending an amount to someone else, but without information linking the transaction to anyone.
This is similar to the level of information released by stock exchanges, where the time and size of individual trades, the "tape", is made public, but without telling who the parties were.
Some linking is still unavoidable with multi-input transactions, which necessarily reveal that their inputs were owned by the same owner.
The risk is that if the owner of a key is revealed, linking could reveal other transactions that belonged to the same owner. Calculations We consider the scenario of an attacker trying to generate an alternate chain faster than the honest chain.
Even if this is accomplished, it does not throw the system open to arbitrary changes, such as creating value out of thin air or taking money that never belonged to the attacker.
Nodes are not going to accept an invalid transaction as payment, and honest nodes will never accept a block containing them.
An attacker can only try to change one of his own transactions to take back money he recently spent. The race between the honest chain and an attacker chain can be characterized as a Binomial Random Walk.
The probability of an attacker catching up from a given deficit is analogous to a Gambler's Ruin problem.
Suppose a gambler with unlimited credit starts at a deficit and plays potentially an infinite number of trials to try to reach breakeven.
With the odds against him, if he doesn't make a lucky lunge forward early on, his chances become vanishingly small as he falls further behind.
We now consider how long the recipient of a new transaction needs to wait before being sufficiently certain the sender can't change the transaction.
We assume the sender is an attacker who wants to make the recipient believe he paid him for a while, then switch it to pay back to himself after some time has passed.
The receiver will be alerted when that happens, but the sender hopes it will be too late. The receiver generates a new key pair and gives the public key to the sender shortly before signing.
This prevents the sender from preparing a chain of blocks ahead of time by working on it continuously until he is lucky enough to get far enough ahead, then executing the transaction at that moment.
Once the transaction is sent, the dishonest sender starts working in secret on a parallel chain containing an alternate version of his transaction.
The recipient waits until the transaction has been added to a block and z blocks have been linked after it. Converting to C code Running some results, we can see the probability drop off exponentially with z.
Conclusion We have proposed a system for electronic transactions without relying on trust. We started with the usual framework of coins made from digital signatures, which provides strong control of ownership, but is incomplete without a way to prevent double-spending.
To solve this, we proposed a peer-to-peer network using proof-of-work to record a public history of transactions that quickly becomes computationally impractical for an attacker to change if honest nodes control a majority of CPU power.
The network is robust in its unstructured simplicity. Nodes work all at once with little coordination. They do not need to be identified, since messages are not routed to any particular place and only need to be delivered on a best effort basis.
Nodes can leave and rejoin the network at will, accepting the proof-of-work chain as proof of what happened while they were gone.
They vote with their CPU power, expressing their acceptance of valid blocks by working on extending them and rejecting invalid blocks by refusing to work on them.
Any needed rules and incentives can be enforced with this consensus mechanism. References  W. Massias, X. Avila, and J.
Quisquater, "Design of a secure timestamping service with minimal trust requirements," In 20th Symposium on Information Theory in the Benelux, May Haber, W.
ICO Identification Issuance amount. Lightning Network Lisk Litecoin Lock time. Gox Multisig Multi-signature Wallet.
Orphan Block Overseas remittance. Value record - Ledger Volatility. Share on pinterest. Share on reddit.
Share on telegram. Share on tumblr. Share on vk. Share on whatsapp. Share on email. Bitcoin What is Bitcoin?
A Quick Outline. Bitcoin Is A Peaceful Protest.
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